LIBR 281-03
LIBR 281-12
Seminar in Contemporary Issues
Topic: Public Information Policies in a Globalized Information Society
Spring 2009 Greensheet

Dr. Michel J. Menou
E-mail
Office location: Les Rosiers sur Loire, France (Central Europe Time or GMT/UMT 1)
Office Hours: By appointment (due to time differences) through eMail, Skype, Elluminate or any mutually agreeable medium


Greensheet Links
Textbooks and Readings
Course Requirements
Resources
ANGEL
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Objectives | Requirements | Calendar | Grading | Readings

This is an online only course using Angel. Students must self-enrol for the course between January 12nd. and January 21st, 2009. The required password access enrollment code will be provided in an email via the MySJSU Messaging system. The course begins via Angel on Thursday January 22nd. Suitable time slots will be jointly identified in order to arrange if possible for presentations and discussions in Elluminate.

Course Description

Mankind is supposed to have entered a new era usually called the "information society". This transformation occurs in conjunction with another change: globalization. In all countries public policies claim to facilitate this transformation. The key issues covered or missed in the information policy arena within a variety of countries and international forums and the process of policy making, implementation, monitoring and evaluation will be discussed. Internal policies of individual organizations, public or private, will not be considered. This course intends to foster students' critical thinking about these issues so that they can become active participants in the related processes in accordance with their respective professional and social environments.

Course Prerequisites: LIBR 200, 202, 204 required.

Course Objectives

At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  • Read accurately the discourse of various stakeholders related to public information policies;
  • Appreciate differences and interdependence of positions among various categories of stakeholders, various countries and cultures;
  • Identify issues that need to be addressed by public information policies in relation to their professional, personal and/or community context;
  • Contribute to the formulation of position statements about public information policies;
  • Articulate their opinion regarding major issues and processes related to public information policies.

LIBR 281-03, 261-12 supports the following SLIS Core Competencies:

  • Compare the environments and organizational settings in which library and information professionals practice;
  • Recognize the social, cultural and economic dimensions of information use;
  • Evaluate programs and services on specified criteria;
  • Articulate the ethics, values and foundational principles of library and information professionals and their role in the promotion of intellectual freedom;
  • Contribute to the cultural, economic, educational and social well-beeing of our communities;
  • Demonstrate oral and written communication skills necessary for group work, collaborations and professional level presentations.

Course Requirements

Assignments
N.B. Unless otherwise stated in the calendar or announced with fair notice, students are expected to enter their initial contributions to the assignments at least by Monday 7pm PST each week in the appropriate space in Angel in order to allow for an effective general discussion during the two following days.

  • Participation in weekly discussions in Angel
    The course will rely upon a number of areas for discussion. Students should regularly visit these areas and contribute to the discussions by posting their own reflections, questions or comments.

    There will be one discussion forum dedicated to the topic of each week. The critical reviews of documents, both Verzola's book and selected documents, will be posted on blogs.  Subject to confirmation, the grading scheme of Angel discussion forums will tentatively be used in order to help with mutual appreciation of contributions to our learning (i.e.: entry contributed to one's learning *little, **a bit, *** fairly, ****much, ***** a great deal); this will not be integrated in the marks but might help each participant enhance his/her contribution.

    A social discussion forum, the "Infopol club" will be established for open discussion of any subject not strictly related to the course topics at a particular time, e.g. news, career concerns, socializing in general, general comments abour our endeavour, etc.
  • Weekly summaries of lessons learned
    Two students will volunteer for summariizing key accomplishments and lessons learned during each of the weeks 2 to 14. The summaries will be posted on the discussion forum for the corresponding week not later than 1 day after its end. They will list the issues discussed and key points made, the conclusions arrived at, the issues to be further considered, and significant highlights. They will also provide a short account of how the group has performed. Since they primarily serve as a reminder, summaries should be short (About 200/800 words; use of bullets points welcome). Each student will produce his/her own summary but they are strongly encouraged to confront and possibly harmonize their views.
  • Critical reviews of documents
    A first segment of this assignment will be for all students to write a critical review of Roberto Verzola's book "Towards a Political Economy of Information" (provided in the resources section of the course, courtesy of the author), according to the following time table: Part 1 by February 4, Parts 2 and 3 by February 18, Part 4 by March 11, Part 5 by April 15. The reviews for each part should be descriptive, critical, constructive and short (between 500 and 1000 words). They will be posted on a blog in order to facilitate discussion and interaction.

    A second segment of this assignment will be for each student to write a short (about 500 words) critical review of one document related to the theme of weeks 3 to 12. Students can freely choose from the documents suggested in the course or found on the web or the media (in which case original documents should be made accessible to the group). Students are also encouraged to select in the web sites of concerned public, public or civil society stakeholders pages related to their policies or concerns for the related topics. Students are encouraged to choose same documents so that several descriptions and interpretations can be discussed. The reviews will be posted in a blog in order to facilitate interaction and discussions.
  • Quizzes
    Quizzes will be used as appropriate in weeks 2 to 12 as a means to recapitulate key aspects of the theme.
  • Policy brief
    A) Choose a subject:
    Each student will select one aspect of public information policy that is of particular interest to him/her. Ideally this should also be an aspect upon which s/he might have direct concern, desire or opportunity to act. S/he will specify the perspective and context from which the brief is produced and the intended audience.

    As a way of illustration one may name such examples as: net neutrality from the perspective of public libraries, broadband deployment in rural areas, transborder exchange of personal data from the standpoint of a travel agency, role of the general public in Internet governance; enforcement of web accessibility standards for elderly people.

    In case a student's topic of interest is a broad one, like "gender issues in information policy" it is advisable to try and isolate a specific feature that might illustrate most facets of the broad subject, e.g. comparing gender related statements in public information policy documents of a few entitites. As far as possible students should consider how the subject of their choice is dealt with in different countries (e.g. U.S.A, Switzerland and Cayman Islands about Internet security). Students are also encouraged to pick up each a different aspect of a particular subject so that their respective policy briefs can form a more comprehensive review of that subject. For instance "Supporting ICT development in less advanced countries" may be split into five briefs dealing respectively with financing, governance, infrastructure, human resources and multilingualism. In such a case students should seek to interact extensively and even work as a group, if feasible. Subjects should be approved by the instructor.

    B) Assemble and analyze background material

    A significant though by no means comprehensive set of important and recent policy documents from the various categories of concerned stakeholders, commentaries and/or scholarly contributions should be exploited. One may expect that a policy brief would be backed by roughly a dozen such documents.

    C) Produce the policy brief

    The paper should be no more than 6 thousand words (excluding bibliographic references). It should:
    • identify the policy issue(s) and its/their significance;
    • identify the principal stakeholders and their respective positions;
    • present arguments about the issue in at least two different countries whose position is typical of the prevailing convergences or divergences, best or worst practices, if applicable;
    • formulate a concise position statement from the student's perspective as an information professional in the particular context and for the particular audience selected. The statement should discuss the pros and cons of alternative courses of action suggested;
    • include all appropriate references to the sources used.

    Be careful about unsupported generalities; claims should be supported by logical argument or by authoritative references. During the whole process (A-C) interaction among students and between them and the instructor is welcome and indeed encouraged.

    D) Post and reply to the questions and comments from the participants

    The policy briefs should be made available to the group on April 22nd. latest (most appropriate platform to be determined). Weeks 13, 14 and in part 15 will be devoted to discussing them in batches with a view to keep focus. If feasible, oral presentation and discussion on Elluminate will be arranged.

Course Calendar
The calendar below, especially the contents of weeks 7 to 12, will be revised if necessary on the basis of the findings during weeks 1 and 2, in particular students' major interests; an indicative and non limitative list of possible topics is presented. Sequence and scope may also be subject to change with fair notice in order for instance to respond to outbreaking developments in the information policy arena or adjust to requirements from the group.

Although there is a noteworthy margin of individual variation and differences, it is assumed that the weekly workload would be roughly 4 hours for personal work, 3 hours for preparing the policy brief, 3 hours for readings and 2 hours for participating in the discussions (except weeks 13-15 which are mostly discussions).

Week 1

(1/22-1/28)

Getting acquainted and organized
Sub-themes

1) Personal introductions. 2) Why public information policy matters to you and what it is about. 3) Review of course provisions (contents, methods, times and places)

Read

Documents: Greensheet. Introductory remarks about subject and course

Readings: Verzola Part 1. President Obama's technology policy as presented in his campaign web site; civic site promoting public technology policy; video "Did you know? Shift happens! Version 3.0" (Latest version of the clip originally created by Karl Fisch and Scott McLeod: Did you know, Shift happens: Globalization and the information age)

To Do (Assignments)

- By Monday 1/26: Fill in Individual profiles and Tentative individual time table.

- Quiz (not graded) Self assessment of awareness

- Post comments and questions about the course in this week Discussion forum

- Discuss contents of 2 sites and video mentioned under Readings above in the Selected readings blog

 

Week 2

(1/29-2/4)

Taking stock of policy issues
Sub-themes

1) Your initial views 2) Specifying and clustering issues 3) Selecting favourite subjects

Read

Documents: This week notes

Readings: Verzola Part 1. Selected readings

To Do

(Assignments)

- By Wednesday 2/4: Post review of Verzola Part 1 in Verzola Blog

- By Monday 2/2 noon PST: Post your list of favourite subjects and preference for groups

- Post comments and questions in this week Discussion forum and Blogs

 

Week 3

(2/5-2/11)

Stakeholders and environments
Sub-themes

1) Players in a national environment and their role: central government, local governments, IT industries, user industries, media industries, eduation sector, defense and security sector, civil society organizations, citizens and consumers at large, etc..

2) Players in an international environment and their role: governments, inter-governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, multinational corporations, investors, etc..

3) Are stakeholders and countries equal ?

4) The death of geography ?

Read

Documents: This week Notes

Readings: Verzola Parts 2 & 3. Selected readings

To Do

(Assignments)

Post comments and questions in this week Discussion forum and Blogs

Volunteers should have posted Summary of week 2 by 2/5 midnight PST

 

Week 4

(2/12-2/18)

Overview of the policy process / cycle
Sub-themes 1) Concepts of policy 2) The policy cycle 3) Evidence based policy formulation: information society measurements 4) Mechanisms and instruments 5) Democratic participation ? 6) Public-Private Partnerships 7) Discourses, symbols, interpretations and investigation methods
Read

Documents: This week Notes

Readings: Verzola Parts 2 & 3. Selected readings

To Do

(Assignments)

- By Wednesday 2/18: Post review of Verzola Parts 2 & 3 in Verzola Blog

- Post comments and questions in this week Discussion forum and Blogs

Volunteers should have posted Summary of week 3 by 2/12 midnight PST

 

Week 5

(2/19-2/25)

A national case study: "Conectandonos al futuro de El Salvador"
Sub-themes 1) The story 2) Some methodological issues 3) Outcome and lessons learned
Read

Documents: This week Notes

Readings: Verzola Part 4. Selected readings

To Do

(Assignment)

- Post comments and questions in this week Discussion forums and blogs

Volunteers should have posted Summary of week 4 by 2/19 midnight PST

 

Week 6

(2/26-3/4)

An international case study: The World Summit of the Information Society
Sub-themes 1) The Process 2) Outcomes 3) Follow up implementation activities 4) Global Digital Solidarity Fund (DSF)
Read

Documents: This week Notes

Readings: Verzola Part 4. Selected readings

To Do

(Assignments)

- Post comments and questions in this week Discussion forum and Blogs

Volunteers should have posted Summary of week 5 by 2/26 midnight PST

 

Week 7

(3/5-3/11)

Main Topic 1 Digital inclusion
Sub-themes 1) What do exclusion, or gap, and inclusion mean ? 2) At the national level, which policies are best suited to cope with: universal service; last (or 1st ?) mile; Acccess to the Internet; Broad Band access; Digital and Information literacy ? 3) At the international level, which policies are best suited to help overcome the digital divide between Nations ?
Read

Documents: This week Notes

Readings: Verzola Part 4. Selected readings

To Do

(Assignment)

- By Wednesday 3/11: Post review of Verzola Part 4 in Verzola Blog

- Post comments and questions in this week Discussion Forum and Blogs

Volunteers should have posted Summary of week 6 by 3/5 midnight PST

N.B.: Begin work at Policy brief if not done already

 

Week 8

(3/12-3/18)

Main Topic 2 Infrastructures
Sub-themes
1) Does National IQ=Network capacity ? 2) Components of the physical infrastructure 3) Public information policy concerns related to: Telecommunications; Media; Computing and software; Documents storage, preservation, access; Security; Standards
Read

Documents: This week Notes

Readings: Verzola Part 5. Selected readings

To Do

(Assignments)

- Post comments and questions in this week Discussion forum and blogs

Volunteers should have posted Summary of week 7 by 3/12 midnight PST

 

Week 9

(3/19-4/1)

Main Topic 3 Human concerns
N.B. Spring Break March 23-27; César Chávez Day March 31st.
Sub-themes Privacy; Identity; Information access; Freedom of expression; Surveillance; Security; Child protection; Gender; Accessibility (with regard to various disabilities); Impact on social and family life; Health support; Learning; Creativity; Role of games
Read

Documents: This week Notes

Readings: Verzola Part 5. Selected readings

To Do

(Assignments)

- Post comments and questions in this week Discussion forum and Blogs

Volunteers should have posted Summary of week 8 by 3/19 midnight PST

 

Week 10

(4/2-4/8)

Main Topic 4 Economy concerns
Sub-themes e-Commerce; e-Business; e-Banking; Innovation; Knowledge economy; Business models; Taxation; Teleworking; Employment shifts; Outsourcing; Greening ICT industries and ICT greening industries; ICT waste
Read

Documents: This week Notes

Readings: Verzola Part 5. Selected readings

To Do

(Assignments)

- Post comments and questions in this week Discussion forum and Blogs

Volunteers should have posted Summary of week 9 by 4/2 midnight PST

 

Week 11

(4/9-4/15)

Main Topic 5 Government and democracy concerns
Sub-themes Adapting existing legislation and administrative procedures; New legislation facilitating or supporting deployment of an information society; Regulation entities and mechanisms; ICT responsibilities in Government; e-Government; Citizens' interaction with eGovernment services; Transparency; eTendering; Political action and citizens' participation; Electronic voting; Law enforcement in a global networked economy; Disaster preparedness and response; Critical infrastructures.
Read

Documents: This week Notes

Readings: Verzola Part 5. Selected readings

To Do

(Assignments)

- By Wednesday 4/15: Post review of Verzola Part 5 in Verzola Blog

- Post comments and questions in this week Discussion forum and Blogs

Volunteers should have posted Summary of week 10 by 4/9 midnight PST

 

Week 12

(4/16-4/22)

Main Topic 6 Local communities
Sub-themes Which policies can better respond to the needs of: diasporas, First Nations, under-priviledged communities, minorities, rural communities, intelligent communities ?
Read

Documents: This week Notes

Readings: Selected readings. Policy briefs if available

To Do

(Assignments)

- Post comments and questions in this week Discussion forum and Blogs

Volunteers should have posted Summary of week 11 by 4/16 midnight PST

 

Week 13

(4/23-4/29)

Discussion of Policy briefs 1-10
Read Readings: Policy Briefs

To Do

(Assignments)

- Post comments and questions about Policy briefs in Policy briefs Blog

Volunteers should have posted Summary of week 12 by 4/23 midnight PST

 

Week 14

(4/30-5/6)

Discussion of Policy briefs 11-20
Read Readings: Policy briefs

To Do

(Assignments)

- Post comments and questions about Policy briefs in Policy briefs Blog

Volunteers should have posted Summary of week 13 by 4/30 midnight PST

 

Week 15

(5/7-5/13)

Discussion of Policy briefs 21-25. Open questions. Wrap up and conclusions. Evaluation
Read Readings: Policy briefs

To Do

(Assignments)

- Post comments and questions about Policy briefs in Policy briefs Blog

- Post comments and questions in this week Discussion Forum

- Volunteers should have posted Summary of week 14 by 5/7 midnight PST

- By Tuesday 5/12: Fill in evaluation questionnaire

N.B.: Submit reply to SOTE

 

Course Grading

 

Points available

Assignment
Due Date Points available
Participation in discussion forums and blogs on-going 2 per week; 30 total
Weekly summaries of lessons learned as agreed 5 points

Critical review of documents

1) Review of Verzola's book

2) Review of selected documents

 

per time table

Mondays of each week 3-12

10 points

10 points

Quizzes TBD 5 points
Policy briefs April 22nd 40 points

Criteria
The automatic grading machine has not yet been invented. The criteria below should be regarded as a general orientation.

  • Participation in discussions

Students are expected to regularly(postings each week) contribute to all discussion areas (discussion forums, blogs, etc.) with relevant, precise, documented (explicit reference to supporting evidence or logical argument), constructive comments, questions and/or replies. They are expected to conform to standard Netiquette.

What we all look for is participation in the collective learning. For each week, if anyne's:

- number of postings is 10% below the average number of postings: 0 point

- 10% of postings are grossly missing any of the above mentioned attribute: -1 point

- number of postings is above average number of postings: 1 point

- number of replies generated is above average number of replies: 1 point

  • Weekly summaries and critical reviews of documents
  D - Insufficient C- Acceptable B- Good A - Very Good
1) Comprehensi-veness Only a few issues and key points are mentioned
Some issues and key points are mentioned Most issues and key points are mentioned All issues and key points are mentioned
2) Accuracy Very general and/or vague description of the contribution A number of contributions or points are ill represented A few approximations and/or distortions Precise relation of the contributions or points
3) Critical Thinking Incomplete account of key outcomes without outlook Unprecise account or no support for the outlook Some parts of the outlook are not supported Outlook is supported by logical argument and/or evidence
4) Style Common language and style; abuse of abbreviations and/or colloquial expressions Inconsistent use of professional language and style A few improprieties Consistent use of professional language and style
5) Participation Mostly vague and non constructive replies

A number of short and/or superficial replies and some questions/ comments omitted

Mostly respond to other participants' feedback Triggering interaction among participants
  • Quizzes

1 point per correct answer; totals adjusted to the number of points available for this requirement.

  • Policy brief
  D- Insufficient C - Acceptable B - Good A - Very Good
1) Identification of the issue: 6 points Vague, incomplete Almost complete and relatively precise Complete and specific Complete, specific, well articulated and convincing
2) Identification of stakeholders: 6 points Vague, incomplete Almost complete and relatively precise Complete and specific Complete, specific, well articulated and convincing
3) Examples of arguments: 6 points Vague, not really representative Specific, quite representative, not always articulated Specific, representative, well articulated Specific, very representative, well articulated
4) Position statement: 12 points Vague, mostly not actionable nor properly supported Clear, sometimes not actionable nor properly supported Clear, mostly actionable, not always properly supported Clear, actionable, well supported by logical argument and/or evidence
5) Presentation of the document: 4 points Loose structure; common language and style; abuse of abbreviations and/or colloquial expressions. Many non standard citations and references A number of defects in organisation, language, style, citations and references Some minor deficiencies in organisation, language, style, citations and references Clear and logical structure. Consistent use of professional language and style. Standard citations and references
6) Participation in discussions: 6 points Mostly vague and non constructive replies A number of short and/or superficial replies and some questions/comments omitted Mostly respond to other participants' feedback Triggering interaction among all participants

 

Textbooks and Readings

There is no authoritative textbook on information policies. The following is an illustrative and non-limitative list of general texts whose reading is recommended. Specific readings will be later on suggested in relation to the topics selected for discussion.

  • Braman, Sandra (2006). Change of state: Information, policy and power. Cambridge, MA: MIY Press. 0262025973.
  • Horton, Forest Woody (1997). National information policies: a handbook on the formulation, approval, implementation and operation of national information policies. (2nd. revised ed., 1st. ed. by V. Montviloff). Paris, France: UNESCO.
  • Menou, Michel J. (Ed) (1993). Measuring the impact of information on development. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC. Available online at http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-9373-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
  • Rowlands, Ian (1997). Understanding information policies. Berlin, Germany: Bowker-Saur.
  • Webster, Frank (1995). Theories of the information society. 3rd ed. London, U.K., Routledge. 0415406323.

 

Recommended Textbooks:

  • Braman, S. (2006). Change of State: Information, Policy, and Power. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Available through Amazon: 0262025973. arrow gif indicating link outside sjsu domain
  • Webster, F. (1995). Theories of the Information Society (3rd ed). London: Routledge. Available through Amazon: 0415406323. arrow gif indicating link outside sjsu domain
  • Menou, M.J. (1993). Measuring the Impact of Information on Development Ottawa: IDRC. Available through Amazon: 0889367086. arrow gif indicating link outside sjsu domain


Grading Scale

The standard SJSU School of Information Grading Scale is utilized for all iSchool courses:

97 to 100 A
94 to 96 A minus
91 to 93 B plus
88 to 90 B
85 to 87 B minus
82 to 84 C plus
79 to 81 C
76 to 78 C minus
73 to 75 D plus
70 to 72 D
67 to 69 D minus
Below 67 F

 

In order to provide consistent guidelines for assessment for graduate level work in the School, these terms are applied to letter grades:

  • C represents Adequate work; a grade of "C" counts for credit for the course;
  • B represents Good work; a grade of "B" clearly meets the standards for graduate level work;
    For core courses in the MLIS program (not MARA) — INFO 200, INFO 202, INFO 204 — the iSchool requires that students earn a B in the course. If the grade is less than B (B- or lower) after the first attempt you will be placed on administrative probation.  You must repeat the class the following semester. If -on the second attempt- you do not pass the class with a grade of B or better (not B- but B) you will be disqualified.
  • A represents Exceptional work; a grade of "A" will be assigned for outstanding work only.

Students are advised that it is their responsibility to maintain a 3.0 Grade Point Average (GPA).

University Policies

General Expectations, Rights and Responsibilities of the Student

As members of the academic community, students accept both the rights and responsibilities incumbent upon all members of the institution. Students are encouraged to familiarize themselves with SJSU's policies and practices pertaining to the procedures to follow if and when questions or concerns about a class arises. See University Policy S90-5 at http://www.sjsu.edu/senate/docs/S90-5.pdf. More detailed information on a variety of related topics is available in the SJSU catalog at http://info.sjsu.edu/web-dbgen/catalog/departments/LIS.html. In general, it is recommended that students begin by seeking clarification or discussing concerns with their instructor. If such conversation is not possible, or if it does not serve to address the issue, it is recommended that the student contact the Department Chair as a next step.

Dropping and Adding

Students are responsible for understanding the policies and procedures about add/drop, grade forgiveness, etc. Refer to the current semester's Catalog Policies section at http://info.sjsu.edu/static/catalog/policies.html. Add/drop deadlines can be found on the current academic year calendars document on the Academic Calendars webpage at http://www.sjsu.edu/provost/services/academic_calendars/. The Late Drop Policy is available at http://www.sjsu.edu/aars/policies/latedrops/policy/. Students should be aware of the current deadlines and penalties for dropping classes.

Information about the latest changes and news is available at the Advising Hub at http://www.sjsu.edu/advising/.

Consent for Recording of Class and Public Sharing of Instructor Material

University Policy S12-7, http://www.sjsu.edu/senate/docs/S12-7.pdf, requires students to obtain instructor's permission to record the course and the following items to be included in the syllabus:

  • "Common courtesy and professional behavior dictate that you notify someone when you are recording him/her. You must obtain the instructor's permission to make audio or video recordings in this class. Such permission allows the recordings to be used for your private, study purposes only. The recordings are the intellectual property of the instructor; you have not been given any rights to reproduce or distribute the material."
    • It is suggested that the syllabus include the instructor's process for granting permission, whether in writing or orally and whether for the whole semester or on a class by class basis.
    • In classes where active participation of students or guests may be on the recording, permission of those students or guests should be obtained as well.
  • "Course material developed by the instructor is the intellectual property of the instructor and cannot be shared publicly without his/her approval. You may not publicly share or upload instructor generated material for this course such as exam questions, lecture notes, or homework solutions without instructor consent."

Academic integrity

Your commitment, as a student, to learning is evidenced by your enrollment at San Jose State University. The University Academic Integrity Policy F15-7 at http://www.sjsu.edu/senate/docs/F15-7.pdf requires you to be honest in all your academic course work. Faculty members are required to report all infractions to the office of Student Conduct and Ethical Development. The Student Conduct and Ethical Development website is available at http://www.sjsu.edu/studentconduct/.

Campus Policy in Compliance with the American Disabilities Act

If you need course adaptations or accommodations because of a disability, or if you need to make special arrangements in case the building must be evacuated, please make an appointment with me as soon as possible, or see me during office hours. Presidential Directive 97-03 at http://www.sjsu.edu/president/docs/directives/PD_1997-03.pdf requires that students with disabilities requesting accommodations must register with the Accessible Education Center (AEC) at http://www.sjsu.edu/aec to establish a record of their disability.

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